Oanda (Canada) Corporation ULC
National Policy 11-203 Process For Exemptive Relief Applications in Multiple Jurisdictions -- Application by Filer for relief from prospectus requirement in connection with distribution by the Filer of contracts for difference and OTC foreign exchange contracts (collectively, CFDs) to investors resident in applicable jurisdictions, subject to terms and conditions -- Filer is registered in Ontario as an investment dealer and is a member of the New Self-Regulatory Organization of Canada (New SRO) -- Filer complies with New SRO rules and New SRO acceptable practices applicable to offerings of CFDs -- Filer seeking relief to permit Filer to offer CFDs to investors on the basis of clear and plain language risk disclosure document rather than a prospectus -- risk disclosure document contains disclosure substantially similar to risk disclosure document required for recognized options in OSC Rule 91-502 Trades in Recognized Options, the regime for OTC derivatives contemplated by former proposed OSC Rule 91-504 OTC Derivatives (which was not adopted), and the Quebec Derivatives Act -- Relief consistent with relief contemplated by OSC Staff Notice 91-702 Offerings of Contracts for Difference and Foreign Exchange Contracts to Investors in Ontario (OSC SN 91-702) -- Relief granted, subject to terms and conditions as described in OSC SN 91-702, including four-year sunset clause.
Applicable Legislative Provisions
Securities Act, R.S.O. 1990, c. S.5, as am., ss. 53 and 74(1).
OSC Rule 91-502 Trades in Recognized Options.
OSC Rule 91-503 Trades in Commodity Futures Contracts and Commodity Futures Options Entered into on Commodity Futures Exchanges Situate Outside of Ontario.
Proposed OSC Rule 91-504 OTC Derivatives (not adopted).
April 19, 2023
IN THE MATTER OF
THE SECURITIES LEGISLATION OF ONTARIO
AND IN THE MATTER OF
THE PROCESS FOR EXEMPTIVE RELIEF APPLICATIONS IN MULTIPLE JURISDICTIONS
AND IN THE MATTER OF
OANDA (CANADA) CORPORATION ULC
The principal regulator in the Jurisdiction has received an application (the Application) from the Filer for a decision under the securities legislation of the Jurisdiction (the Legislation) that the Filer and its respective officers, directors and representatives be exempt from the prospectus requirement in respect of the distribution of contracts for difference and over-the-counter (OTC) foreign exchange contracts (collectively, CFDs) to investors resident in the Applicable Jurisdictions (as defined below), subject to the terms and conditions below (the Requested Relief).
Under the Process for Exemptive Relief Applications in Multiple Jurisdictions (for a passport application):
(a) the Ontario Securities Commission is the principal regulator for this application (the Principal Regulator); and
(b) the Filer has provided notice that section 4.7(1) of Multilateral Instrument 11-102 Passport System (MI 11-102) is intended to be relied upon in each of the other provinces and territories of Canada, other than the provinces of Quebec and Alberta, (the Non-Principal Jurisdictions, and, together with the Jurisdiction, the Applicable Jurisdictions).
Terms defined in National Instrument 14-101 Definitions and MI 11-102 have the same meaning if used in this Decision, unless otherwise defined.
This Decision is based on the following facts represented by the Filer:
1. The Filer is a corporation incorporated under the laws of Alberta with its principal office in Toronto, Ontario.
2. The Filer is registered as a dealer in the category of investment dealer in each of the provinces and territories of Canada, and is a member of the New Self-Regulatory Organization of Canada (New SRO).
3. The Filer does not have any securities listed or quoted on an exchange or marketplace in any jurisdiction inside or outside of Canada.
4. The Filer is not in default of applicable securities legislation in any province or territory of Canada, or the New SRO Rules or the New SRO Acceptable Practices (as defined below).
5. The Filer currently offers OTC derivatives in which the underlying interests consist of currencies and other asset classes (CFDs) to "accredited investors" as defined in National Instrument 45-106 Prospectus Exemptions (NI 45-106) and to retail investors pursuant to In the Matter of OANDA (Canada) Corporation ULC dated April 23, 2019 (the Existing Relief).
6. The Filer wishes to offer CFDs to investors in the Applicable Jurisdictions on the terms and conditions described in this Decision. For the Interim Period (as defined below), the Filer is seeking the Requested Relief in connection with the proposed offering of CFDs in Ontario and intends to rely on this Decision and the Passport System described in MI 11-102 to offer CFDs in the Non-Principal Jurisdictions.
7. In Quebec, the Filer is qualified by the Autorité des marchés financiers (AMF) pursuant to section 82 of the Derivatives Act (Quebec) (the QDA) and authorized to market certain forward contracts and CFDs offered to the public, subject to the terms and conditions of its qualification decision and related provisions of the QDA.
8. The Filer understands that staff of the Alberta Securities Commission have public interest concerns with CFD trading by retail clients and, accordingly, the Filer does not intend to offer CFDs to investors in Alberta. The Filer undertakes not to give notice that subsection 4.7(1) of MI 11-102 is intended to be relied upon in Alberta.
9. As a member of the New SRO, the Filer is only permitted to enter into CFDs pursuant to the rules and regulations of the New SRO (the New SRO Rules).
10. In addition, the New SRO has communicated to its members certain additional expectations as to acceptable business practices (New SRO Acceptable Practices) as articulated in the New SRO paper "Regulatory Analysis of Contracts for Differences (CFDs)" published by the New SRO on June 6, 2007, as amended on September 12, 2007, for any New SRO member proposing to offer CFDs to investors. The Filer is in compliance with the New SRO Acceptable Practices in offering CFDs. The Filer will continue to offer CFDs in accordance with the New SRO Acceptable Practices as may be established from time to time, and will not offer CFDs linked to bitcoin, cryptocurrencies or other novel or emerging asset classes to investors in the Applicable Jurisdictions without the prior written consent of the New SRO.
11. The Filer is required by the New SRO to maintain a certain level of capital to address the business risks associated with its activities. The capital reporting required by the New SRO (as per the calculation in the Form 1 and the Monthly Financial Reports to the New SRO) is based predominantly on the generation of financial statements and calculations as to ensure capital adequacy. The Filer, as a New SRO member, is required to have a specified minimum capital which includes having any additional capital required with regards to margin requirements and other risks. This risk calculation is summarized as a risk adjusted capital calculation which is submitted in the firm's Form 1 and required to be kept positive at all times.
Online Trading Platform
12. The Filer's fxTrade platform (the Trading Platform) is a proprietary and fully automated internet-based trading platform which allows clients to trade CFDs on an execution-only basis.
13. The Trading Platform is a key component in a comprehensive risk management strategy which will help the Filer's clients and the Filer to manage the risks associated with leveraged products. This risk management system has evolved over many years with the objective of meeting the mutual interests of all relevant parties (including, in particular, clients). These attributes and services are described in more detail below:
a) Real-time client reporting. Clients are provided with a real-time view of their account status. This includes how tick-by-tick price movements affect their account balances and required margins. Clients can view this information at any time by logging into their fxTrade account.
b) Fully automated risk management system. Clients are instructed that they must maintain the required margin against their position(s). The risk management functionality of the Trading Platform ensures that client positions are closed out when the client no longer maintains sufficient margin in their account to support the position; clients are notified when their account drops below the margin requirement. This risk mitigation system prevents the client from being required to provide additional capital to cover the margin deficiency or losing more than their stated risk capital or cumulative loss limit. This functionality also ensures that the Filer will not incur any credit risk vis-a-vis its customers in respect of CFD transactions.
c) Wide range of order types. The Trading Platform also provides risk management tools such as stop loss orders, limit orders, contingent orders and upper and lower bounds on market orders. These tools are designed to help clients reduce the risk of loss.
14. The Trading Platform is similar to those developed for on-line brokerages in that the client trades without other communication with, or advice from, the dealer. The Trading Platform is not a "marketplace" as defined in National Instrument 21-101 Marketplace Operation since a marketplace is any facility that brings together multiple buyers and sellers by matching orders in fungible contracts in a nondiscretionary manner. The Trading Platform does not bring together multiple buyers and sellers; rather it offers clients access to interbank prices.
15. The Filer is the counterparty to its clients' CFD trades; it will not act as an intermediary, broker or trustee in respect of the CFD transactions. The Filer does not manage any discretionary accounts, nor does it provide any trading advice or recommendations regarding CFD transactions.
16. The Filer manages the risk in its clients' position through a hedging strategy, subject to the New SRO Rules and the New SRO Acceptable Practices. This strategy involves the Filer automatically offsetting each position against other client positions on a second-by-second basis, and either "hedging" its net exposure by trading with liquidity providers (banks) or using its equity capital, or both. By virtue of this risk management functionality inherent in the Trading Platform, the Filer eliminates both market risk and counterparty risk. The Filer is currently compensated by the "spread" between the bid and ask prices it offers for any currency pair. It does not currently charge any account opening or maintenance fees (except for inactive accounts), commissions, or other charges of any kind. In the event the Filer wishes to introduce any fees, commissions or other charges in respect of CFDs, it will provide not less than the minimum prior written notice required of New SRO member firms wishing to do so.
17. The CFDs are OTC contracts and are not transferable.
18. The ability to lever an investment is one of the principal features of CFDs. Leverage allows clients to magnify investment returns (or losses) by reducing the initial capital outlay required to achieve the same market exposure that would be obtained by investing directly in the underlying currency or instrument.
19. The New SRO Rules and the New SRO Acceptable Practices set out detailed requirements and expectations relating to leverage and margin for offerings of CFDs. The degree of leverage may be amended in accordance with the New SRO Rules and the New SRO Acceptable Practices as may be established from time to time.
20. Pursuant to section 13.12 (Restriction on borrowing from, or lending to, clients) of National Instrument 31-103 Registration Requirements, Exemptions and Ongoing Registrant Obligations (NI 31-103) only those firms that are registered as investment dealers (a condition of which is to be a member of the New SRO) may lend money, extend credit or provide margin to a client.
Structure of CFDs
21. A CFD is a derivative product that allows clients to obtain economic exposure to the price movement of an underlying instrument, such as a share, index, market sector, currency pair, treasury or commodity, without the need for ownership and physical settlement of the underlying instrument. Unlike certain OTC derivatives, such as forward contracts, CFDs do not require or oblige either the principal counterparty (being the Filer for the purposes of the Requested Relief) nor any agent (also being the Filer for the purposes of the Requested Relief) to deliver the underlying instrument.
22. CFDs to be offered by the Filer will not confer the right or obligation to acquire or deliver the underlying security or instrument itself, and will not confer any other rights of shareholders of the underlying security or instrument, such as voting rights. Rather, a CFD is a derivative instrument which is represented by an agreement between a counterparty and a client to exchange the difference between the opening price of a CFD position and the price of the CFD at the closing of the position. The value of the CFD is generally reflective of the movement in prices at which the underlying instrument is traded at the time of opening and closing the position in the CFD.
23. CFDs to be offered by the Filer allow clients to take a long or short position on an underlying instrument, but unlike futures contracts, they have no fixed expiry date, standard contract size or an obligation for physical delivery of the underlying instrument.
24. CFDs allow clients to obtain exposure to markets and instruments that may not be available directly, or may not be available in a cost-effective manner.
CFDs Distributed in the Applicable Jurisdictions
25. Certain types of CFDs, such as CFDs where the underlying instrument is a security, may be considered to be "securities" under the securities legislation of the Applicable Jurisdictions.
26. Investors wishing to enter into CFD transactions must open an account with the Filer.
27. Prior to a client's first CFD transaction and as part of the account opening process, the Filer will provide the client with a separate risk disclosure document that clearly explains, in plain language, the transaction and the risks associated with the transaction (the Risk Disclosure Document). The Risk Disclosure Document includes the required risk disclosure set forth in Schedule A to the Regulations to the QDA and leverage risk disclosure required under the New SRO Rules. The Risk Disclosure Document contains disclosure that is substantially similar to the risk disclosure statement required for recognized options in OSC Rule 91-502 Trades in Recognized Options (which provides both registration and prospectus exemptions) (OSC Rule 91-502) and the regime for OTC derivatives contemplated by OSC Staff Notice 91-702 Offerings of Contracts for Difference and Foreign Exchange Contracts to Investors (OSC SN 91-702) and proposed OSC Rule 91-504 OTC Derivatives (which was not adopted) (Proposed Rule 91-504). The Filer will ensure that, prior to a client's first trade in a CFD transaction, a complete copy of the Risk Disclosure Document provided to that client has been delivered, or has previously been delivered, to the Principal Regulator.
28. Prior to the client's first CFD transaction and as part of the account opening process, the Filer will obtain a written or electronic acknowledgement from the client confirming that the client has received, read and understood the Risk Disclosure Document. Such acknowledgement will be prominent and separate from other acknowledgements provided by the client as part of the account opening process.
29. As is customary in the industry, and due to the fact that this information is subject to factors beyond the control of the Filer (such as changes in the New SRO Rules), information such as the underlying instrument listing and associated margin rates will not be disclosed in the Risk Disclosure Document. Instead, such information will be part of a client's account opening package and will be available on both the Filer's website and the Trading Platform.
Satisfaction of the Registration Requirement
30. The role of the Filer as it relates to the CFD offering (other than it being the principal under the CFDs) will be limited to acting as an execution-only dealer. In this role, the Filer will, among other things, be responsible to approve all marketing, for holding of client funds, and for client approval (including the review of know-your-client (KYC) due diligence and account opening suitability assessments pursuant to NI 31-103).
31. The New SRO Rules exempt member firms that provide execution-only services such as discount brokerages from the obligation to determine whether each trade is suitable for a client. However, the New SRO has exercised its discretion to impose additional requirements on New SRO members proposing to trade in CFDs and requires, among other things, that:
a) applicable Risk Disclosure Documents and client suitability waivers be provided in a form acceptable to the New SRO;
b) the firm's policies and procedures, amongst other things, require the Filer to assess whether CFD trading is appropriate for a client before an account is approved to be opened. This account opening suitability process includes an assessment of the client's investment knowledge and trading experience, client identification, screening applicants and customers against lists of prohibited/blocked persons, and detecting and reporting suspicious trading and potential terrorist financing and money laundering activities to applicable enforcement authorities;
c) the Filer's registered supervisors who conduct the KYC and initial product suitability analysis will meet, or be exempted from, the proficiency requirements for futures trading and will be registered with the New SRO as Investment Representatives (IR) for retail customers in the product category of Futures Contracts and Futures Contract Options. The course proficiency requirements for an IR include the completion of the Canadian Securities Course, Conduct and Practices Handbook, the Derivatives Fundamentals Course and Futures Licensing Course. In addition, the Filer must have a fully qualified Supervisor (Futures); and
d) cumulative loss limits for each client's account be established (this is a measure normally used by the New SRO in connection with futures trading accounts).
32. The CFDs offered in Canada will be offered in compliance with applicable New SRO Rules and other New SRO Acceptable Practices.
33. The New SRO limits the underlying instruments in respect of which member firms may offer CFDs since only certain securities are eligible for reduced margin rates. For example, underlying equity securities must be listed or quoted on certain "recognized exchanges" (as that term is defined in the New SRO Rules) such as the Toronto Stock Exchange or the New York Stock Exchange. The purpose of these limits is to ensure that CFDs offered in Canada will only be available in respect of underlying instruments that are traded in well-regulated markets, in significant enough volumes and with adequate publicly available information, so that clients can form a sufficient understanding of the exposure represented by a given CFD.
34. The New SRO Rules prohibit the margining of CFDs where the underlying instrument is a synthetic product (single U.S. sector or "mini-indices"). For example, Sector CFDs (i.e., basket of equities for the financial institutions industry) may be offered to non-Canadian clients; however, this is not permissible under the New SRO Rules.
35. New SRO members seeking to trade CFDs are generally precluded, by virtue of the nature of the contracts, from distributing CFDs that confer the right or obligation to acquire or deliver the underlying security or instrument itself (convertible CFDs), or that confer any other rights of shareholders of the underlying security or instrument, such as voting rights.
36. The Requested Relief, if granted, would (and the Existing Relief does) substantially harmonize the position of the regulators in the Applicable Jurisdictions on the offering of CFDs to investors in the Applicable Jurisdictions with how those products are offered to investors in Quebec under the QDA. The QDA provides a legislative framework to govern derivatives activities within Quebec. Among other things, the QDA requires such products to be offered to investors through a the New SRO member and the distribution of a standardized risk disclosure document rather than a prospectus in order to distribute such contracts to investors resident in Quebec.
37. The Requested Relief, if granted, would be (and the Existing Relief is) consistent with the guidelines articulated by staff of the Principal Regulator in OSC SN 91-702. OSC SN 91-702 provides guidance with regards to the distributions of CFDs, foreign exchange contracts and similar OTC derivative products to investors in the Jurisdiction.
38. The Principal Regulator has previously recognized that the prospectus requirement may not be well suited for the distribution of certain derivative products to investors in the Jurisdiction, and that alternative requirements, including requirements based on clear and plain language risk disclosure, may be better suited for certain derivatives.
39. In Ontario, both OSC Rule 91-502 and OSC Rule 91-503 Trades in Commodity Futures Contracts and Commodity Futures Options Entered into on Commodity Futures Exchanges Situated Outside Ontario (OSC Rule 91-503) provide for a prospectus exemption for the trading of derivative products to clients. The Requested Relief is consistent with the principles and requirements of OSC Rule 91-502, OSC Rule 91-503 and Proposed Rule 91-504.
40. The Filer submits that the Requested Relief, if granted, would (and the Existing Relief does) harmonize the Principal Regulator's position on the offering of CFDs with certain other foreign jurisdictions that have concluded that a clear, plain language risk disclosure document is appropriate for retail clients seeking to trade in foreign exchange contracts.
41. The Filer is of the view that requiring compliance with the prospectus requirement in order to enter into CFDs with retail clients would not be appropriate since the disclosure of a great deal of the information required under a prospectus and under the reporting issuer regime is not material to a client seeking to enter into a CFD transaction. The information to be given to such a client should principally focus on enhancing the client's appreciation of product risk including counterparty risk. In addition, most CFD transactions are of short duration (positions are generally opened and closed on the same day) and are in any event marked to market and cash settled daily.
42. The Filer is regulated by the New SRO, which has a robust compliance regime including specific requirements to address market, capital and operational risks.
43. The Filer submits that the regulatory regimes developed by the AMF and the New SRO for CFDs adequately address issues relating to the potential risk to the clients of the Filer acting as counterparty. In view of these regulatory regimes, investors would receive little or no additional benefit from requiring the Filer to also comply with the prospectus requirement.
44. The Requested Relief in respect of each Applicable Jurisdiction is conditional on the Filer being registered as an investment dealer with the Commission in such Applicable Jurisdiction and maintaining its membership with the New SRO and that all CFD transactions be conducted pursuant to the New SRO Rules and in accordance with the New SRO Acceptable Practices.
The Principal Regulator is satisfied that the test set out in the Legislation to make the Decision is met.
The Decision of the Principal Regulator is that the Requested Relief is granted provided that:
(a) all CFDs traded with residents in the Applicable Jurisdictions shall be executed through the Filer;
(b) with respect to residents of an Applicable Jurisdiction, the Filer remains registered as a dealer in the category of investment dealer with the Principal Regulator and the Commission in such Applicable Jurisdiction and a member of the New SRO;
(c) all CFD transactions with clients resident in the Applicable Jurisdictions shall be conducted pursuant to the New SRO Rules imposed on members seeking to trade in CFDs and in accordance with the New SRO Acceptable Practices, as amended from time to time;
(d) all CFD transactions with clients resident in the Applicable Jurisdictions be conducted pursuant to the rules and regulations of the QDA and the AMF, as amended from time to time, unless and to the extent there is a conflict between i) the rules and regulations of the QDA and the AMF and ii) the requirements of the securities laws of the Applicable Jurisdictions, the New SRO Rules and the New SRO Acceptable Practices, in which case the latter shall prevail;
(e) prior to a client first entering into a CFD transaction, the Filer has provided to the client the Risk Disclosure Document and has delivered, or has previously delivered, a copy of the Risk Disclosure Document provided to that client to the Principal Regulator;
(f) prior to the client's first CFD transaction and as part of the account opening process, the Filer has obtained a written or electronic acknowledgement from the client, as described in paragraph 28, confirming that the client has received, read and understood the Risk Disclosure Document;
(g) the Filer has furnished to the Principal Regulator the name and principal occupation of its officers and directors, together with either the personal information form and authorization of indirect collection, use and disclosure of personal information provided for in National Instrument 41-101 General Prospectus Requirements or the registration information form for an individual provided for in Form 33-109F4 of National Instrument 33-109 Registration Information completed by any officer or director;
(h) the Filer shall promptly inform the Principal Regulator in writing of any material change affecting the Filer, being any change in the business, activities, operations or financial results or condition of the Filer that may reasonably be perceived by a counterparty to a derivative to be material;
(i) the Filer shall promptly inform the Principal Regulator in writing if a self-regulatory organization or any other regulatory authority or organization initiates proceedings or renders a judgment related to disciplinary matters against the Filer concerning the conduct of activities with respect to CFDs;
(j) within 90 days following the end of its financial year, the Filer shall submit to the New SRO, and to the Principal Regulator upon request, the audited annual financial statements of the Filer; and
(k) the Requested Relief shall immediately expire upon the earliest of
i. four years from the date that this Decision is issued;
ii. in respect of a subject Applicable Jurisdiction or Quebec, the issuance of an order or decision by a court, the Commission in such Applicable Jurisdiction, the AMF (in respect of Quebec) or other similar regulatory body that suspends or terminates the ability of the Filer to offer CFDs to clients in such Applicable Jurisdiction or Quebec; and
iii. with respect to an Applicable Jurisdiction, the coming into force of legislation or a rule by any Commission regarding the distribution of CFDs to investors in such Applicable Jurisdiction
(the Interim Period).
It is further the Decision of the Principal Regulator that the Existing Relief is hereby revoked.